Journal of Pharmacology and Drag Development <p>Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Development is an international, peer reviewed, semiannual online journal. The journal is published by Al-Nahrain University, College of Pharmacy, Baghdad , Iraq. The journal and publisher are committed to meeting and upholding standards of ethical behavior, that follow the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) at all stages of the publication process.</p> <p><strong>Aim and Scope</strong></p> <p>The aim of the journal is to boost scientific experience, inspire scientific research publications and promotes an exchange of scientific information, and medical education. It offers an area for documenting innovations, new methods, and technologies in all application of sciences related to the pharmaceutical field. It publish technical research and clinical studies related to the scope of pharmacology, medicine, drug delivery systems, drug design, drug targeting, drug stability, herbal drug, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenomics, bio pharmaceutics, pharmaceutical analysis, quality control, and all pharmacy practice.</p> en-US Journal of Pharmacology and Drag Development Possibility of infection with COVID-19 in vaccinated Iraqi people <p>Objective: As the pandemic effect of viral infection with COVID-19 caused dreadful from death in worldwide, thereafter many vaccines manufactured against it. The aim of this study is to explore the acceptability of anti- COVID-19 vaccine in Iraqi population.<br>Methods: An online survey conducted in February 2022 among current vaccinated people that included 308 participants (108 males and 200 females) aged (18-66) years. The questionnaire involved questions about the vaccine type ,vaccine dose number, presence of infection after vaccination, symptom of infection after vaccination, period of infection appearance after vaccination, duration of infection presence after vaccination.<br>Results: The upper percent of questionnaire database reported that 68% of people take Pfizer vaccine, 84 % of people take twice dose of vaccine. Moreover, 68 % of people not infected after taking vaccine, symptom that appear after vaccination 15% mild to moderate. While, the period of infection appearance after vaccination was 25% more than one month, and the duration of infection presence after vaccination was 22% about one week.<br>Conclusion: The outcomes of this study showed the important role of anti- COVID-19 vaccine in constricted the spreading effect of COVID-19 infection for a reasonable level.</p> Haitham Mahmood Kadh Feryal Hashim Rada Zainab Mohammed Ali Muna Haider Mohammed Saja Alah Mahdi Juman Jasem Mohammed Hassanein Ahmed Tareq Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 1 1 1 5 Comparison of sitagliptin, glimepiride, and metformin group with glimepiride and metformin group in treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 patients <p>Objective: To compare glycaemia control between glimepiride and metformin group with sitagliptin, glimepiride and metformin group in uncontrolled type 2 diabetic patient.<br>Methods: This retrospective, randomized, clinical study was done in the diabetes research center. The number of the patient in this study was thirty-five patients. The patients examined individually in detail to check their general health in addition to the physical state. For all the patients, data had been collected and fasting plasma glucose level had been measured. Participants have been chosen by unresponsiveness of diabetic patient to single therapy of metformin or glimepiride in this trial. The patients were allocated into 2 groups. Group I include 14 patient given glimepiride, metformin and sitagliptin, while group II include 21 patients given glimepiride and metformin. Both groups continue treatment for thirty days and statistical analyses include data collection was done.<br>Results: A statistical significant decrease was found in fasting plasma glucose level when compare before and after treatment regimen of sitagliptin, Glimepiride and Metformin group while no significant difference in fasting plasma glucose when comparing the triple therapy group (Sitagliptin, Glimepiride and Metformin) with the double therapy group (Glimepiride and Metformin) after thirty days of treatment.<br>Conclusion: No significant difference was found between glimepiride and metformin therapy with sitagliptin, glimepiride and metformin therapy in uncontrolled type 2 diabetic patient.</p> Mohammed Fareed Hameed Saba Hameed Majeed Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 1 1 6 10 The severity of COVID-19 infection in Iraqi heavy smokers’ sample <p>Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused devastating impacts globally. The aim of this study is to mitigate virus spread, imposed severe restrictions during March 2020.<br>Methods: An online cross - sectional survey was conducted in March 2021 among current smokers to explore changes in smoking behavior and home-smoking rules during this period. The study included 157 participants (126 males and 31 females) aged 13-59 years. We administered a survey during the coronavirus pandemic with several questions that allowed us to collect specific data, to assess how smoking effect on COVID- 19 patients and how are they concerned with the results of Non-smokers patients.<br>Results: The questionnaire was constructed based on what we intended to report. (66%) of infections was less than 14 days; (12%) of infections was severe and (2%) was critical infections.<br>Conclusion: Majority of patients were previously clear of systemic diseases. Only 11% of patients needed to attend the hospital.</p> Haitham Mahmood Kadhim Shahad Muhammed Ali Fatima Adnan Yacoub Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 1 1 11 16 Prevalence of Multi-drug Resistance in Iraqi Patients with Tuberculosis <p>Objective: Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial, infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis complex. TB causes a wide range of clinical infections affecting many parts of the body. Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is caused by bacteria that are resistant to both isoniazid and rifampicin, the most effective anti- TB drugs, or more. MDR-TB presents a major concern in many countries and continues to threaten TB control.<br>Methods: A retrospective cohort study carried out from 5 Jan 2020 to 30 March 2020 at the Specialized Chest and Respiratory Disease Center in Baghdad. The records of the patients who received multidrug treatment were included in the study. On the other hand, all the records that not contain full information about the socio-demographic characteristics, history of travelling or other disease, type and duration of treatment, and drug culture sensitivity excluded from the study.<br>Results: From the 650 patients whom there records were reviewed, 130 patients had single or multi-drug resistance mainly to rifampicin and isoniazide. Comparing the presence of drug resistance according the gender showed that the number of males who had resistance to drugs was higher than that of females.<br>Conclusion: Tuberculosis affects mainly the productive age group. It affects males more than females. Resistance to anti TB drugs was found in one fifth of patients who received treatment.</p> Haitham Mahmood Kadhim Elaf Abdul-wahab Rahma Hussein Raghda Mazin Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 1 1 17 24 Medical Application of Graphene and its derivative <p>Graphene is one of the most important compounds that possess a lot of very unique chemical properties. The importance of graphene and its diverse medical use in all directions has increased, making this matter the focus of attention and attention of scientists and medical specialists with regard to the early diagnosis of cancer and tumors, its clinical follow-up and treatment, especially in recent years. In this review, the medical and pharmacological applications and uses of graphene in the early diagnosis of different types of cancer and how to follow up on disease cases were discussed. The most important difficulties facing researchers in the applied medical field of graphene were also discussed. The important and exceptional feature of graphene composite was the influential point in the diversity of medical applications of graphene, including electronic superconductivity, very high surface area, thermal conductivity, mechanical strength, low economic cost, and possible development methods .A deep and comprehensive understanding of the interactions of graphene, which include organs and tissues, could lead to the production or formation of nano platforms such as graphene oxide that are more productive than graphene, Which has shown many important achievements regarding the applications of medical sensors that were in their initial stages.</p> Ahmed Jassim Muklive Al-Ogaidi Firas Al-Oqaili Liblab S. Jassim Shaymaa S. Hassan Hamssa Ahmed Easa Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 1 1 25 31 Assessments of active pharmaceutical ingredient and excipients in some pharmaceutical formulations <p>Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient is a substance that considered as one of the important materials that enter into the manufacture of the final pharmaceutical product, and its activity. Pharmaceuticals have a significant impact on the treatment and diagnosis of pathological conditions, and thus reduce the economic burden of the disease. As well, it has a role in the restoration, correction, or modification of physiological functions in human. Excipients play an important role in a drug's performance, including bioavailability, improving solubility, preserving the PH, stability, and determining the profile of the release. The reduction in the production cost of active pharmaceutical ingredient is not only due to the reduction in workers' wages, beside to innovations in the production method, which could help to reduce the economic state. The excipients have an essential part in industry of drugs, which contain a dependable, repeatable production method that produces a more stable product over time and increasing patient compliance.</p> Ahmed Jassim Muklive Al-Ogaidi Firas Al-Oqaili Liblab S. Jassim Shaymaa S. Hassan Hamssa Ahmed Easa Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 1 1 32 38